Monday, April 19, 2010
Business writing differs significantly from article or academic writing. Business communication is generally in the form of reports, policies, instructions, procedures, memos, letters, orders or rules & regulations. Memos are business letters but only for employees & used within an organization.
Memos are used to give information to employees such as changes in some procedures or rules, policy change or for specific purpose like request to attend a meeting. The format of the memo differs from business letter format. Memos generally contain sections like to, from, date, subject & text of memo.
Points to remember while writing a memo:
If you are sending memo to specific person, then you should write correct name of the reader. You can write job title along with name to make it more formal.
Subject should not be vague or unclear. It should be brief & specific, which can give an idea about the purpose of the memo.
Generally, memos do not contain salutation or complimentary closing.
The text in text section of memo should be concise, clear, to the point.
Avoid use of long and complex sentences that contain too much information. Short sentences make your message more readable and understandable. You can use headings & bullets to make your memo easy to read.
First paragraph in text area or opening paragraph should contain background of the problem & purpose of the memo. Memo’s recipient should get an overview of the memo by reading the first paragraph only.
In next paragraphs, you can explain the steps you have taken or methods and sources you have used to solve the problems.
Last paragraph should be the closing segment, where you can request your reader to take an action to solve the problem. Some people use conclusion at the end of memo to summarize the content. Conclusions are also useful for suggestions and recommendations or if you wish to make a request to the reader.
If there are any attachments, always mention at the end, after closing segment.
Always proofread your memo before sending it. You can use software programs, which are available for business writing, for proofreading & to check and correct English grammar & spellings in your memo. Some software programs enrich your text with adjectives & adverbs, which enhances the simple sentence into more professional and sophisticated one & suggest context related synonym for repeated words.
For information on business English writing software please visit
Tuesday, April 13, 2010
From The Secret Daily Teachings
Most people don't realize how much passion they put into what they don't want. When you speak to a friend and you tell them all about an "awful" situation, you are putting passion into what you don't want. When you react to an event negatively, with the response that it is "terrible", you are putting passion into what you don't want.
Friday, April 09, 2010
Thursday, April 08, 2010
Friday, April 02, 2010
Try the following instructions on how to write a persuasive essay. They are indispensable in writing a well-planned and thoroughly considered persuasive essay.
1.Start with an Impressive Lead-In
The introduction of your persuasive essay is the first words you utter to render the readers to be well-disposed to you. Moreover, it is by the introduction that the reader decides whether to go on reading you essay or leave it in peace. Thus, the introduction of your essay should be attention grabbing and impressive enough to induce the reader to read further on.
Writing a persuasive essay, you need to pay particular attention to the first sentence you are going to write down, namely a lead-in. It is the most important part of the whole persuasive essay, out of which you come out either a winner or a loser.
To write a strong and impressive lead-in, try the following strategies:
7.start with an unusual detail;
8.put a strong statement;
9.quote a famous person;
10.introduce a short and up-to-the-point anecdote;
11.open the essay with a statistic or fact;
12.start with an emphatic rhetorical question;
Before deciding on one of the strategies, try all of them. You will be surprised to find out how different strategies can enrich and smarten up the introduction to your persuasive essay.
After you have put the opening sentence, be sure to introduce a sentence that will show that you see both pros and cons of the subject matter under consideration. Then write a thesis or focus statement, which has to reveal your own point of view. A well-formulated thesis statement is the key to success, as it is the central part of your essay, around which all other parts are organized.
Remember that a good introduction should be brief, concise and end with a closing sentence that will be transitional to the next paragrath.
2.Support Your Thesis in the Body
The body of your persuasive essay is the main part of your writing where you present supporting evidence and elaborate on the reasons you stated previously. The body should be a proof that you have researched and examined your persuasive essay topic and that your arguments are reasonable and reliable.
In order to prove your thesis statement and dispel the opposing arguments, you need to: 1) state the facts of the case; 2) prove your thesis with arguments; and 3) disprove your opponent's arguments in three consecutive steps.
Statement of facts is a non-argumentative presentation of details, summaries and narration concerning the problem discussion. In this part of the body you should present supporting evidence without stating your own point of view and trying to persuade the readers in it.
First, you should remind the readers of some events, provide vivid illustrations that will show the significance of the topic. Statement of facts should be clear, brief, and vivid. If you obscure the facts, you are defeating the purpose. Thus, delete irrelevant information and information which contributes little to the reader's understanding.
After you've introduced some facts, you can get down to proving your thesis with arguments. This should be the longest section and the central part of your persuasive essay. With the readers rendered attentive by the introduction and informed by the statement of fact, you must show why your position concerning the facts should be accepted and believed.
Now comes the time to deny the truth on which the opposing argument is built. Be patient in thinking over the refutation. It is the most difficult stage that needs time, concentration and absorption.
The proven way to hook readers' attention is to leave your strongest argument for last so that to leave them with your best thought.
3.Write a Memorable Conclusion.
Your conclusion should be a "mirror image" of your introduction. It means that you should refresh the reader's memory and remind him of the thesis statement you put in the introduction. It is not a mere waste of time or words, but the best way to convince the reader to take your side.
As well as in writing the introduction, you can try several ways to write a memorable conclusion for your persuasive essay.
Except for restating the introduction, you can summarize the main points to enable the readers to recall the main points of your position.
A nice way to conclude the persuasive essay is to write a personal comment or call for action. It could be: 1) your prediction; 2) a question that will let the readers make their own predictions; 3) your recommendations to solve a problem; 4) a quotation. It's up to you to decide!
The last line of your persuasive essay, that is the "tag line," needs special attention, for it is the second most important line after the lead-in. Thus, it is important that it:
4.renders the readers to be well disposed to you;
5.magnifies your points;
6.puts the readers in the proper mood.
Once you have put the full stop after the "tag line", your work is over. But make sure that the words you have put in your persuasive essay will be "working" long after your readers stop reading it.
written by: Linda Correli
Thursday, April 01, 2010
How do you speak naturally while all those people are watching you?
This document covers hints and tips on public speaking and presentation skill, dealing with public speaking nerves and anxiety, public speaking skills and public speaking techniques, public speaking training.
Common Fears of Public Speaking
What happens when you have to speak in public?
Did you know that public speaking tops the list of phobias for most people? Not spiders or heights – public speaking – speech in public!
Well, if you didn’t know that, we bet your body does. It will do all kinds of unpleasant things to you when you have to stand up and face a sea of faces with the hope of getting your message across in a compelling and interesting way.
Your hands may sweat and your mouth goes dry. Your knees may shake and a quaver affects your voice. Your heart may race and those well known butterflies invade your stomach.
When all that happens most people don’t think of getting their message across in a compelling and interesting way; they just think of getting off the ’stage’ as quickly as possible!
Have we frightened you sufficiently yet?
We don’t really mean to frighten you, just remind you that your body reacts ‘in extremis’ when put under pressure, and for most people, public speaking is just about the worst pressure they can be put under.
It’s normal to be nervous and have a lot of anxiety when speaking in public. In a way, it’s less normal not to have nerves or anxiety; in fact, to feel you have a phobia about public speaking.
Why do we get Public Speaking anxiety?
Fight or flight
Our bodies are geared to fight or flight from ancient time – fight that mastodon or get the hell out of the way. We don’t have too many mastodons around these days, but the body still reacts as though we do. So, if we have to get up and speak in public, all that adrenalin and noradrenalin goes coursing through our bodies – way more than we need.
We can’t run away (well, we could, but we’d be out of job pretty quick if we did it too often), so our only option is to fight. But in terms of speaking in public, it can be hard to define just what we’re fighting.
Why does public speaking do this to us?
Good question. You’d think that for most people, being given the opportunity to impress their audience would be a fantastic one. There you are in front of a group of people, the spotlight is on you and for the length of time you’ve been give, the world is yours.
Or is it?
The very fact that the spotlight is you is enough to trigger every fear, anxiety and phobia you’ve ever had about public speaking.
You may be judged by all those people, and judged badly
You may feel like a fool
You might make mistakes and loose your way
You’ll be completely humiliated
You’ll never be as good as _________ (fill in the blank)
‘They’ won’t like you
‘They’ won’t ‘get’ what you’re trying to say
How to overcome fear of Public Speaking
What good are Nerves
Public speaking may not be comfortable, but take our word for it, nerves are good. Being ‘centre stage’ is not a good place to feel too comfortable.
Nerves will keep you awake and ensure you don’t get too complacent. Hard to feel complacent when your heart is beating so hard you’re sure everyone watching you can hear it.
If channelled well, nerves can make the difference between giving a humdrum presentation and giving one that keeps people listening.
Get your attention off yourself
It’s very tempting to keep focused on how you’re feeling, especially if you’re feeling really uncomfortable. You’ll start to notice every bead of sweat.
To make your nerves work for you, you need to focus on just about anything other than yourself. You can distract yourself by paying attention to the environment in which you’re speaking and seeing how you can make it work for you.
Once you’re actually in front of your audience, pay attention to them. If you can, notice how people are dressed, who’s wearing glasses, who has on bright colours. There will be dozens and dozens of things you can pay attention to help you trick your mind into not noticing what’s going on with you.
Anything will do and you will find that the less you concentrate on how you are feeling and the more you concentrate on other things, the more confident you will feel.
How to build confidence in Public Speaking
Your audience can be your friend
Unless you know you’re absolutely facing a hostile group of people, human nature is such that your audience wants you succeed. They’re on your side!
Therefore, rather than assuming they don’t like you, give them the benefit of the doubt that they do.
They aren’t an anonymous sea of faces, but real people. So to help you gain more confidence when speaking in public, think of ways to engage your audience. Remember, even if they aren’t speaking, you can still have a two-way conversation.
When you make an important point pay attention to the people who are nodding in agreement and the ones who are frowning in disagreement. As long as you are creating a reaction in your audience you are in charge.
Keep them awake
The one thing you don’t want is for them to fall asleep! But make no mistake public speaking arenas are designed to do just that: dim lights, cushy chairs, not having to open their mouths – a perfect invitation to catch up on those zzzzs.
Ways to keep them away include
Ask rhetorical questions
Maintain eye contact for a second or two with as many people as possible
Change the pace of your delivery
Change the volume of your voice
Public Speaking Training
Get a coach
Whatever the presentation public speaking is tough, so get help.
Since there are about a zillion companies out there all ready to offer you public speaking training and courses, here are some things to look for when deciding the training that’s right for you.
Focus on positives not negatives
Any training you do to become more effective at public speaking should always focus on the positive aspects of what you already do well.
Nothing can undermine confidence more than telling someone what they aren’t doing well.
You already do lots of things well good public speaking training should develop those instead of telling you what you shouldn’t do.
Turn your back on too many rules
If you find a public speaking course that looks as though it’s going to give you lots of dos and don’ts, walk away! Your brain is going to be so full of whatever it is you’re going to be talking about that to try to cram it full of a whole bunch of rules will just be counterproductive.
As far as we’re concerned, aside from physical violence or inappropriately taking off your clothes, there are no hard and fast rules about public speaking.
You are an individual not a clone
Most importantly, good public speaking training should treat you as a unique individual, with your own quirks and idiosyncrasies. You aren’t like anybody else and your training course should help you bring out your individuality, not try to turn you into someone you’re not.
Hints and Tips for Effective Public Speaking
Here are just a few hints, public speaking tips and techniques to help you develop your skills and become far more effective as a public speaker.
Mistakes are all right.
Recovering from mistakes makes you appear more human.
Good recovery puts your audience at ease – they identify with you more.
Tell jokes if you’re good at telling jokes.
If you aren’t good, best to leave the jokes behind.
There’s nothing worse than a punch line that has no punch.
Gentle humour is good in place of jokes.
Self-deprecation is good, but try not to lay it on too thick.
Stories make you a real person not just a deliverer of information.
Use personal experiences to bring your material to life.
No matter how dry your material is, you can always find a way to humanise it.
How to use the public speaking environment
Try not to get stuck in one place.
Use all the space that’s available to you.
One way to do this is to leave your notes in one place and move to another.
If your space is confined (say a meeting room or even presenting at a table) use stronger body language to convey your message.
Speak to your audience not your slides.
Your slides are there to support you not the other way around.
Ideally, slides should be graphics and not words (people read faster than they hear and will be impatient for you to get to the next point).
If all the technology on offer fails, it’s still you they’ve come to hear.
You can learn to enjoy public speaking and become far more effective at standing in front of a group of people and delivering a potent message.
When it comes to improving your public speaking skills we have three words:
practise, practise, practise!
Jo Ellen and Robin run Impact Factory and have trained thousands of people in the art of Public Speaking for events from Wedding Speeches through to Key Note Conference Speeches.